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PAKET PRODUK GLUTERA FEBRUARI 2014

Medicals Journals

Health Concerns and Low Glutathione Levels  

Glutathione has been widely studied with over 105,000 published peer-reviewed scientific papers on this topic. In one review, almost 80% of people with chronic ailments were found to be deficient in glutathione. In fact, low levels of glutathione are involved in all disease states. The following symptoms, diseases and illnesses have been linked to low glutathione levels. (To find the scientific papers that have been published on each of these topics in relation to glutathione, visit http://www.pubmed.gov and type in “glutathione” and the symptom/disease/illness/syndrome of interest).
This list is substantial simply because glutathione is present in every cell in the body. Given that glutathione is the body’s master antioxidant and detoxifier, increasing intracellular glutathione levels allow all of your cells in your body to detoxify and to work more efficiently and effectively.
  • acetaminophen (i.e., Tylenol) toxicity
    • read these scientific papers about acetaminophen toxicity and glutathione here.
    • Note: The number one cause of acute liver failure in the US is from taking acetaminophen (read article here)
    • Glutathione can be used to reduce acetaminophen toxicity.
  • acne
    • 13 scientific papers here
    • an article about how increasing glutathione levels can help acne here
  • addictions (including tobacco)
    • 8 scientific papers here
  • AIDS and HIV
    • 322 scientific papers here
    • read a scientific paper entitled, “Role of cysteine and glutathione in HIV infection and other diseases associated with muscle wasting and immunological dysfunction” here.
    • Glutathione levels correspond to poor survival of AIDS patients. Much documentation demonstrates the role of enhanced glutathione levels in AIDS. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA 94: 1967-72, 1997.
    • read this scientific paper entitled “Glutathione and immune function” here. “Two randomized placebo-controlled trials have shown that treatment of HIV-infected patients with N-acetyl-cysteine caused in both cases a significant increase in all immunological functions under test, including an almost complete restoration of natural killer cell activity”
    • Glutathione deficiency is associated with impaired survival in HIV disease “Clinical studies presented here directly demonstrate that low GSH levels predict poor survival in otherwise indistinguishable HIV-infected subjects.”
    • Intracellular Glutathione Levels in T Cell Subsets Decrease in HIV-Infected Individuals “These findings suggest that low intracellular GSH levels may be an important factor in HIV infection and in the resulting immunodeficiency.”
    • Read Lomaestro and Malone’s (1995) paper, Glutathione in Health and Disease: Pharmacotherapeutic Issues
    • Read the American Healthcare Foundation’s article about glutathione and HIV here. “Researchers have discovered that, among other biochemical changes, HIV/AIDS patients experience unusually low GSH concentrations. Some have reported that GSH levels in the blood fall to about 30% of normal. They suggest that this deficiency contributes to the typical feature of HIV infection — progressive weakening of the immune system. Scientific studies have shown that supplementation aimed at maintaining GSH levels can diminish and sometimes reverse the wasting effects of AIDS.”
    • read these scientific papers about HIV and glutathione here
  • aging
    • It is well known that aging is accompanied by a precipitous fall in glutathione levels. Lower glutathione levels are implicated in many diseases associated with aging including cataracts, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s atherosclerosis and others. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 47:1021-26, 1994.
    • “Glutathione levels go down in every age group except one and that one are the people who reach a hundred years of age. Those people, interestingly, have glutathione levels that approximate those of a normal 30 to 40 year old.” – Dr.K
    • Glutathione, oxidative stress and aging “The involvement of glutathione in aging has been known since the early seventies. Recent experiments from our laboratory have underscored the importance of cellular compartmentation of glutathione. Mitochondrial glutathione plays a key role in the protection against free radical damage associated with aging.
    • Mitochondrial glutathione oxidation correlates with age-associated oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA “This relationship, which has been observed for the first time in these studies, underscores the role of glutathione in the protection against free radical damage that occurs upon aging.”
    • Subcellular compartmentalization of glutathione: Correlations with parameters of oxidative stress related to genotoxicity “The findings highlight the critical roles of the mitochondrial and nuclear GSH pools in protecting cellular components, particularly DNA, from oxidative modification.” 
    • Oxidative stress and aging: is aging a cysteine deficiency syndrome? “These findings suggest: (i) that loss of youth, health and quality of life may be partly explained by a deficit in cysteine and (ii) that the dietary consumption of cysteine is generally suboptimal and everybody is likely to have a cysteine deficiency sooner or later.”
    • James F. Balch MD and Phyllis A. Balch, C.N.C.: Prescription for Nutritional Healing – Second Edition “As we age, glutathione levels decline, although it is not known whether this is because we use it more rapidly or produce less of it to begin with. Unfortunately, if not corrected, the lack of glutathione in turn accelerates the aging process.”
    • Read Lomaestro and Malone’s (1995) paper, Glutathione in Health and Disease: Pharmacotherapeutic Issues
    • read a general article about the free radical theory of aging and the antioxidant revolution here
    • Watch a 7 min video of  presenting information about the importance of glutathione in the aging process at the American Academy of Anti-Aging Conference here.
  • alcoholism
  • allergies
    • read this article written by the American HealthCare Foundation about the about the role of allergies and glutathione here. “Fighting oxidative damage high GSH levels may help prevent the following complications of allergy: discomfort during the allergic reaction; disruption of normal lifestyle; anaphylaxis and side effects of medications”
  • ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or Lou Gehrig’s disease)
    • Tohgi et al. Increase in Oxidized Products and Reduction in Oxidized Glutathione in Cerborospinal Fluid From Patients with Sporadic Form of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.Neurosci Lett. 1999 Feb 5; 260(3):204-6.
    • Glutathione, oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. There is significant evidence that the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Friedreich’s ataxia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, may involve the generation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we review the evidence for a disturbance of glutathione homeostasis that may either lead to or result from oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disorders.
    • After being given a glutathione IV dose to remove heavy metals stored in the brain, a Lou Gehrig’s patient showed 90 percent improvement within ten minutes. His joint pain was gone and his cognitive symptoms improved markedl. Read article here.
    • read these scientific papers about ALS and glutathione here.
  • Alzheimer’s disease
    • 743 scientific papers here
    • It is well documented in the scientific literature that individuals with Alzheimer’s disease have low glutathione levels.
    • Glutathione, oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. There is significant evidence that the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Friedreich’s ataxia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, may involve the generation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we review the evidence for a disturbance of glutathione homeostasis that may either lead to or result from oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disorders.
    • Woltjer et al. Role of Glutathione in Intracellular Amyloid-Alpha Recursor Protein/Carboxy- Terminal Fragment Aggregation and Associated Cytotoxicity. J Neurochem. 2005 May; 93 (4): 1047-56.
    • Depletion of GSH in glial cells induces neurotoxicity: relevance to aging and degenerative neurological diseases here
    • read these scientific papers about Alzheimer’s disease and glutathione here.
    • The Alternative Doctor suggests increasing glutathione levels as an effective treatment for Alzheimer’s here. He also suggests supplementing with N-acetyl cysteine and alpha lipoic acid.
    • read this article by the American Healthcare Foundation about glutathione and Alzheimer’s here. ”It is unclear whether oxidative damage is the cause or just an effect of Alzheimer’s. Nevertheless, by maintaining adequate GSH levels their antioxidant function is maximized. By diminishing oxidative damage the progression of the disease can be retarded or diminished.”
  • angina and spastic angina, unstable angina
    • 68 scientific papers here
  • anxiety
    • 100 scientific papers here
  • arthritis
    • 429 scientific papers here
    • Elevated levels of inflammatory markers were associated with a depletion of Glutathione in study subjects suffering from Lupus and Arthritis; scientific paper here.
    • The glutathione defense system in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis “Rheumatoid arthritis was associated with significant depletion (ca. 50%) in GSH levels compared with normal control subjects. .. The results support a hypothesis that defense mechanisms against reactive oxygen species are impaired in rheumatoid arthritis.”
  • asthma
    • 548 scientific papers here
    • Kloek J, Mortaz E, Van Ark I, Lilly CM, Glutathione prevents the early asthmatic reaction and airway hyperresponsiveness in guinea pigs. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 2010, 61, 1, 67-72
    • Doctors have used glutathione-promoting drugs to treat many lung diseases including asthma, chronic bronchitis and emphysema. New and potentially therapeutic roles can be found for cigarette smoke damage, pulmonary fibrosis and other illnesses. American Journal of Medical Science 307:119-127, 1994
    • Read this article by the American Healthcare Foundation about glutathione and asthma here. “There is a direct correspondence between low glutathione levels and the severity of the asthma attack. European physicians have long used GSH precursors in the treatment of asthma, particularly as a mucolytic (phlegm thinner) to break down thick secretions.”
  • athletic performance
    • Raised glutathione levels help increase strength and endurance. Those interested in physical fitness can benefit from a definite athletic edge. Journal of Applied Physiology 87: 1381-1385, 1999.
  • atopic dermatitis
  • attention deficit disorder (ADD) and ADHD
    • 9 scientific papers here
    • This scientific study discusses how glutathione production is decreased in children with ADHD
  • autism
    • 56 scientific papers here;
    • read these scientific papers about autism and glutathione here
    • Click here for article about autism and glutathione published in the American Journal of Clinical Chiropractic.
    • A large study by James et al confirmed her original finding of low glutathione in children with autism due to abnormalities in their methionine pathway. She also found that children with autism were more likely to have genetic polytypes associated with abnormalities in the methionine pathway. James et al. Metabolic endophenotype and related genotypes are associated with oxidative stress in children with autism. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2006 Dec 5;141(8):947-56.
    • Medical literature documents that an infection can lead to a lowering of glutathione which participates in detoxification, interacts with metallothioneins, and supports many crucial aspects of immunity. A link between glutathione and autism regression may derive from the fact that transient or chronic intestinal problems can impair an infant’s or toddler’s nutritional status, thereby minimizing the levels of amino-acids required for the production of glutathione (McCandless, J. Children With Starving Brains. 2003, 2nd ed; 252)
    • Biomarker-guided interventions of clinically relevant conditions associated with autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This scientific study discusses how glutathione production is decreased in children with ADHD
    • Low natural killer cell cytotoxic activity in autism: the role of glutathione, IL-2 and IL-15. “We conclude that that 45% of a subgroup of children with autism suffers from low NK cell activity, and that low intracellular levels of glutathione, IL-2 and IL-15 may be responsible.”
    • Mercury and autism: Accelerating Evidence? “The process of cysteine and glutathione synthesis, which are crucial for natural mercury detoxification, are reduced in autistic children, possibly due to genetic polymorphisms [13,30]. Therefore, autistics have 20% lower plasma levels of cysteine and 54% lower levels of glutathione, which, among others, adversely affect their ability to detoxify and excrete metals like mercury”
    • Biomarkers of environmental toxicity and susceptibility in autism. “Significantly decreased plasma levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), cysteine, and sulfate were observed among study participants relative to controls. The transsulfuration abnormalities observed among study participants indicate that mercury intoxication was associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased detoxification capacity.”
    • Scientific paper: “A clinical trial of glutathione supplementation in autism spectrum disorders” here (note that they did not test glutathione specifically, but this study shows that scientists feel that there is scientific merit to increasing glutathione levels in autistic children).
    • read an article by American Healthcare Foundation about glutathione and autism here.
    • “A study performed at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences College of Medicine suggested that excessive cellular oxidative stress may be a factor causing autism. In the study, researchers measured plasma glutathione and its metabolic precursors in 95 autistic children and 75 children without autism. It was found that levels of glutathione are significantly lower in autistic children than in the children without autism.”
    • an article discussing the importance of glutathione for detoxing heavy metals of autistic children here and here. Glutathione is the body’s chief detoxifier.  It works with MT proteins to remove heavy metals and other harmful substances like pesticides and PCBs. Dr. S. Jill James has shown that 90% of children on the  autism spectrum as well as their parents have impaired methylation.  The active form of glutathione is reduced 80% in kids with autism.
    • “Another recent study, to be published later this year, was conducted by Dr. Jill James of the Autism Speaks’ Autism Treatment Network. It relates to the mother’s inability to produce sufficient levels of a chemical called glutathione. The chemical is essential in fighting toxic metals in the body. Several studies have already established that high levels of toxic metals in children are strongly correlated with the severity of autism, Adams said. According to Adams, the glutathione study shows that low levels of glutathione, coupled with high production levels of another chemical, homocysteine, greatly increase the chances of a woman having a child with autism. Among “autism moms” in the study, 41 percent of them carried this chemical abnormality. “This is a big deal where it seems to account for many of the cases of Autism and seems to greatly increase the risk 46 times,” Dr. Adams said. In other words, moms who carry this abnormality of glutathione and homocysteine levels have a one in three chance of having a child with Autism, Adams said. Nationally, researchers estimate that mothers have a one in 150 chance of having a child with Autism.” article here
    • a general article about the link between Parkinson’s disease and autism [i.e., low glutathione levels] here
  • auto immune disorder
    • read about the benefits of raising glutathione levels and auto immune disorders here
  • bird flu
    • 6 scientific papers here
  • bipolar disorder
    • 12 scientific papers here
    • A role for glutathione in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia? Animal models and relevance to clinical practice. When glutathione (GSH) levels are reduced there is an increased potential for cellular oxidative stress, characterised by an increase and accruement of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathology of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Read this abstract here
    • A general article about increasing glutathione levels using N-acetyl cysteine (which is found in Dr. Keller’s Original Glutathione Formula) for bipolar disorder here
  • bowel
  • brain injuries / damage
    • 165 scientific papers here;
    • listen to a recorded call by Dr. Corinne Allen here about brain injuries and glutathione
    • read one person’s testimonial, a person who had a brain surgery for a mass on their brain here. She is now symptom-free, her personality has returned and she can remember things again.
    • Jain, A; Martensson J; Stole E; Auld P; Meister A, Glutathione deficiency leads to mitochondrial damage in brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 1991 Mar;Vol 88:1913-1917.
  • bronchitis
    • 58 scientific papers here
    • Doctors have used glutathione-promoting drugs to treat many lung diseases including asthma, chronic bronchitis and emphysema. New and potentially therapeutic roles can be found for cigarette smoke damage, pulmonary fibrosis and other illnesses. American Journal of Medical Science 307:119-127, 1994
  • burn
    • read how Sona’s burn healed quickly here.
  • cancer (all cancers, including brain, head and neck, thyroid, lung, esophagus, stomach, intestine, liver, pancreas, kidney, uterine, ovarian, prostrate, leukemia [acute and chronic]), lymphoma, multiple myeloma and others) (15,142 scientific papers here)
    • read a scientific paper entitled, “Role of cysteine and glutathione in HIV infection and other diseases associated with muscle wasting and immunological dysfunction” here. This paper discusses how cancer patients have low glutathione levels and supplementation with cysteine can be a useful treatment (Dr. Keller’s Original Glutathione Formula contains N-Acetyl Cysteine)
    • Glutathione plays a role in eliminating many carcinogens/acids and also maintains and optimizes white blood cell function while providing stronger anti-acidic/antitumor defenses.  Cancer Letters 57: 91-94, 1991.
    • GSH and analogs in antiviral therapy. “GSH is the most powerful intracellular antioxidant and plays a role in the detoxification of a variety of electrophilic compounds and peroxides via catalysis by glutathione-S-transferases (GST) and glutathione peroxidases (GPx). An imbalance in GSH is observed in a wide range of pathologies, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, cystic fibrosis (CF), several viral infections including HIV-1, as well as in aging.”
    • Read Lomaestro and Malone’s (1995) paper, Glutathione in Health and Disease: Pharmacotherapeutic Issues
    • read these scientific papers about cancer and glutathione here
    • “The wealth of medical articles describing the role of GSH in cancer prevention and treatment – fall into three main groups: prevention (antioxidation, detoxification of carcinogens, heightened immune response); therapeudic (anti-tumour methodologies, malnutrition and wasting); and chemotherapy and radiotherapy (enhancing effectiveness, cells vulnerable to therapy, minimizing side-effects: less depression, less vomiting, less hair less, less shortness of breath, less neurotoxicity).” – quote from American Healthcare Foundation
  • breast cancer
    • read an article by the American Healthcare Foundation about glutathione and breast cancer here
  • cervical cancer
    • read an article by the American Healthcare Foundation about glutathione and cervical cancer here.
  • colon cancer
    • read an article by the American Healthcare Foundation about glutathione and colon cancer here
  • leukemia
  • ovarian cancercataracts (779 scientific papers here)
  • cholesterol
    • “Raised glutathione levels fight the oxidation of circulating fats in the bloodstream, including cholesterol, retarding the process of plaque formation in the arteries – the underlying cause for most heart disease and stroke”. Nutrition Reviews 54:1-30, 1996.
  • chronic fatigue syndrome / myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME)
    • 27 scientific papers here
    • read a scientific paper entitled, “Role of cysteine and glutathione in HIV infection and other diseases associated with muscle wasting and immunological dysfunction” here. This paper discusses how individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome are low in glutathione and supplementation with cysteine can be a useful treatment (MaxGXL contains N-Acetyl Cysteine)
    • Bounous et al. in 1999 proposed that glutathione depletion by an activated immune system also causes the muscular fatigue and muscle pain associated with chronic fatigue syndrome.
    • read the American Healthcare Foundation’s article about the role of glutathione and chronic fatigue syndrome here. “While CFS is a toxicological problem – it is more typical of an immune disorder. It is best classified as a post-viral or post-infectious syndrome…Glutathione (GSH) detoxifies a large number of pollutants, carcinogens, heavy metals, herbicides, pesticides and radiation… By undergoing GSH enhancing therapy to combat oxidative damage, a major source of chronic fatigue syndrome complications, is addressed including: muscle and joint pain; continuous debilitating fatigue; and impaired short-term memory and concentration. Dr. Paul Cheney and numerous other CFS physicians have demonstrated that once your levels of GSH have returned to a level consistent to enabling proper immune system support, many patients respond with dramatic results.”
  • colitis
    • 230 scientific papers here;
    • Glutathione protects the body from inflammation of gastritis, stomach ulcers, pancreatitis and inflammatory bowel disease including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Gut 42: 485-492, 1998
    • read a scientific paper entitled, “Role of cysteine and glutathione in HIV infection and other diseases associated with muscle wasting and immunological dysfunction” here. This paper discusses how individuals with colitis have low glutathione levels and supplementation with cysteine can be a useful treatment (MaxGXL contains N-Acetyl Cysteine)
  • Crohn’s disease (67 scientific papers here; read one of the abstracts here)
    • read a scientific paper entitled, “Role of cysteine and glutathione in HIV infection and other diseases associated with muscle wasting and immunological dysfunction” here. This paper also discusses Crohn’s disease and how it is a low glutathione syndrome and supplementation with cysteine can be a useful treatment (MaxGXL contains N-Acetyl Cysteine)
    • Glutathione protects the body from inflammation of gastritis, stomach ulcers, pancreatitis and inflammatory bowel disease including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s di-ease. Gut 42: 485-492, 1998
  • cystic fibrosis
    • read these scientific papers about cystic fibrosis and glutathione here
    • Systemic deficiency of glutathione in cystic fibrosis. “The glutathione deficiency observed in ELF in CF patients is not limited to the site of the inflammation but is systemic.”
    • Rethinking cystic fibrosis pathology: the critical role of abnormal reduced glutathione (GSH) transport caused by CFTR mutation. “Given the vital role of GSH as an antioxidant, a mucolytic, and a regulator of inflammation, immune response, and cell viability via its redox status in the human body, it is reasonable to hypothesize that this condition plays some role in the pathogenesis of CF. Therapeutic implications, including alternative methods of GSH augmentation, are discussed.”
    • Glutathione A Radical Treatment for Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease? “Given that a number of inflammatory lung diseases share a diminished level of glutathione in the epithelial lining fluid and excessive lung inflammatory responses, a glutathione therapeutic may have broader implications than cystic fibrosis”
    • read the American Healthcare’s Foundation’s article about the role of glutathione and cystic fibrosis here. “Unlike most other tissues, the lungs can use GSH as-is — through direct contact — rather than having to first absorb its precursors and then manufacture it, as is the case elsewhere in the body. Elevated GSH levels may help cystic fibrosis patients by: providing immune system support against infection; supressing malabsorption of nutrients and, in turn, malnutrition; and slowing the progression of the disease”
  • dementia
    • 551 scientific papers here
  • depression
  • diabetes
    • 2641 scientific papers here
    • read these scientific papers about diabetes and glutathione here
    • Mitochondrial glutathione (scientific review paper) – see p. 2694 for info re: diabetes
    • The blood and tissues of diabetics are marked by critically low glutathione levels.
    • De Mattia et al. Influence of Reduced Glutathione Infusion on Glucose Metabolism in Patients with Non-insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. Metabolism. 1998 Aug;47(8):433-8.
    • Oxidative Stress and Glutathione Synthesis in Type 2 Diabetes “We conclude that subjects with type 2 diabetes have decreased oxidant capacity, evidenced by reduced synthesis of glutathione, and they are under increased oxidative stress”
    • Antioxidants in diabetes management “Administration of glutathione was found to be advantageous in type 2 diabetics and those with impaired glucose tolerance. Glutathione improved insulin secretion in patients with iGT. Glutathione also improves insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes after acute and chronic administration.”
    • Diabetics are more prone to infections and circulatory problems leading to heart disease, kidney failure and blindness. Glutathione protects against the complications of diabetes. Clinical Science 91:575-582, 1996
  • detoxification
    • Glutathione detoxifies a variety of pollutants, carcinogens and poisons including many found in fuel exhaust and cigarette smoke. It also retards damage from radiation exposure due to the eroding ozone layer. Annual Reviews of Biochemistry 52: 711-760, 1983
    • read a general article about the role of the liver and glutathione in the detoxification process here
  • eczema
  • emphysema
    • 91 scientific papers here
    • The Use of Nebulized Glutathione in the Treatment of Emphysema: a Case Report . We present the case of a 95-year-old man with an acute respiratory crisis secondary to emphysema and apparent bronchial infection. Treatment with nebulized glutathione led to a rapid resolution of the crisis, as well as a marked improvement in the chronic course of the disease. This treatment has been used since for a number of patients with emphysema. The safety and bioavailability of this method of delivery have been established in human studies. Preliminary results suggest efficacy for nebulized administration of glutathione in this patient population. We suggest this treatment can be considered an option for acute respiratory crises due to COPD.
    • Doctors have used glutathione-promoting drugs to treat many lung diseases including asthma, chronic bronchitis and emphysema. New and potentially therapeutic roles can be found for cigarette smoke damage, pulmonary fibrosis and other illnesses. American Journal of Medical Science 307:119-127, 1994
  • erectile dysfunction
    • 19 scientific papers here
  • eyes
    • poor eyesight (8 scientific papers here)
    • Natural therapies for ocular disorders, part two: cataracts and glaucoma. “Pathophysiological mechanisms of cataract formation include deficient glutathione levels contributing to a faulty antioxidant defense system within the lens of the eye.”
    • An Impediment to Glutathione Diffusion in Older Normal Human Lenses “A common feature of nuclear cataract is the low concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the center of the lens. GSH is the principal lenticular antioxidant of the lens and it is synthesized and regenerated in the lens cortex.”
    • read the American Healthcare Foundation’s article about glutathione and glaucoma here.
    • “The Russians A.I. Bunin, A.A. Filina and V.P. Erichev measured GSH levels in the eyes of hundreds of patients undergoing surgery for all sorts of reasons. The lowest GSH levels were found among cataracts patients and in patients with open angle glaucoma. They noticed this fall even at the earliest stages of the disease and suggested that reestablished glutathione levels would help prevent or delay this process.”
  • fetal alcohol syndrome
  • fibromyalgia
    • listen to how raising glutathione may benefit someone with fibromyalgia here
    • read the American Healthcare Foundation’s article about glutathione and fibromyalgia here. “The GSH molecule is found in each cell. Maintaining GSH levels help: support your Immune System modulation; slow progression of inflammation and disease; and minimize the side effects of pain medication.”
  • Gaucher’s disease
    • individuals with Gaucher’s disease have a deficiency in glutathione reductase (scientific study in German here). Glutathione reductase is an enzyme that reduces glutathione disulfide to the glutathione.
    • a clinical trial is planned for intravenous N-acetyl cysteine for the treatment of Gaucher’s disease (Dr. Keller’s Original Glutathione Formula contains N-acetyl cysteine) here. They will be quantifying how glutathione levels change in response to the treatment.
  • gastritis
    • Glutathione protects the body from inflammation of gastritis, stomach ulcers, pancreatitis and inflammatory bowel disease including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Gut 42: 485-492, 1998
  • gastroenteritis
    • 359 scientific papers here;
  • gingivitis
    • 12 scientific papers here
  • glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD deficiency)
    • an article about G6PD deficiency and glutathione here. “Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is an enzyme that uses metabolic reactions to provide the reducing capacity to keep glutathione in its reduced form (GSH) and available for its
      metabolic roles that include regeneration of vitamins C and E after they are oxidized while performing their antioxidant functions.”  As a result, glutathione levels are low in individuals with GDPD deficiency.
  • gout
    • read the American Healthcare Foundation’s article about glutathione and gout here. ” Elevated GSH levels may help by: providing Immune System modulation, including less infection; and notably slowing any further arthritic progression. Raising glutathione levels enables a patient with gout to be less prone to painful and debilitating flare-ups.”
  • gum disease
    • 67 scientific papers here
  • headaches
    • 38 scientific papers here
  • heart disease
    • 408 scientific papers here
    • read these scientific papers about cardiovascular disease and glutathione here
    • Raised glutathione levels fight the oxidation of fats circulating in the bloodstream including cholesterol, retarding the process of plaque formation in the arteries leading to most heart attacks and strokes. Nutrition Reviews 54: 1-30, 1996.
    •  ”Relationship Between Plasma Glutathione Levels and Cardiovascular Disease in a Defined Population: The Hisyama Study.” Stroke. 2004 Sep; 35(9):2072-7.
    • “Glutathione Improves Hemostatic and Hemorrheological Parameters in Atherosclerotic Subject.” Drugs Exp. Clin Res 1992
      18:493-98
    • Glutathione Peroxidase 1 Activity and Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.  Increasing glutathione levels might lower the risk of cardiovascular events.
    • read the American Healthcare Foundation’s article about glutathione and heart disease here. “GSH protects your heart and brain in the event of an attack. GSH diminishes damage to oxygen-deprived tissue during and after the attack. GSH protects against lipid peroxidation – the process that turns cholesterol (a waxy fatty substance) rancid. This process causes cholesterol deposits to stick to the artery walls. GSH has been shown to prevent and even reverse hardening of the endothelial – the delicate elastic inner lining – a condition known as arteriosclerosis. There is overwhelming evidence that GSH combats free radical damage to your cardiovascular system – damage that occurs over time – setting the stage for a heart attack or stroke.”
  • heavy metal toxicity
    • 37 scientific papers here
    • Mercury toxicity and antioxidants: Part 1: role of glutathione and alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of mercury toxicity. “There is evidence for antioxidant protection in the prevention of neurological and renal damage caused by mercury toxicity. Research has attempted to identify the role of antioxidants, glutathione and alpha-lipoic acid specifically, in both mitigation of heavy metal toxicity and direct chelation of heavy metals”
    • read these scientific papers about heavy metal toxicity and glutathione here
    • an article discussing the importance of glutathione for detoxing heavy metals of autistic children here and here. Glutathione is the body’s chief detoxifier.  It works with MT proteins to remove heavy metals and other harmful substances like pesticides and PCBs.
    • listen to how raising glutathione levels may benefit someone with heavy metal toxicity here
  • Hepatitis A,B and C
    • 781 scientific papers here
    • The liver is a major storehouse for glutathione. Glutathione is impaired in alcohol hepatitis as well as in viral (acidic) hepatitis including hepatitis A, B, and C. Raisied glutathione levels help restore liver function. American Journal of gastroenterology 91: 2569-2573, 1996
  • herpes
    • 165 scientific papers here
    • Evidence for antiviral activity of glutathione: in vitro inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 replication. Read here
  • Huntington’s disease
  • hypertension or high blood pressure
    • 781 scientific papers here
    • read the American Healthcare Foundation’s article about glutathione and high blood pressure here.
    • “Fighting oxidative damage high GSH levels may help prevent the following complications of high blood pressure: Arteriosclerosis; heart attack; stroke; increased incidence of kidney failure; and side effects of medications”
    • Read this article about the link between excess free radicals and high blood pressure here. The research suggests that anti-oxidants may help prevent or treat high blood pressure. Glutathione is the body’s master anti-oxidant.
  • hyperthyroidism
    • 162 scientific papers here
    • “Low levels of glutathione may be a factor in the genesis of thyroid disease.” Read some abstracts of scientific papers linking low glutathione levels and thyroid disease here.
    • The National Thyroid Institute lists increasing glutathione levels as one of their protocols for treatment of thyroid conditions.
  • hypothyroidism
    • 125 scientific papers here
    • “Low levels of glutathione may be a factor in the genesis of thyroid disease.” Read some abstracts of scientific papers linking low glutathione levels and thyroid disease here.
    • Glutathione is listed first in this list of nutritional relationships with hypothyroidism; “Hypothyroidism decreases efficacy of some antioxidants, such as glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase”.
    • The National Thyroid Institute lists increasing glutathione levels as one of their protocols for treatment of thyroid conditions.
  • hypoxia (stroke, tissue ischemia, inflammation, solid-tumor formation)
  • immune system
    • Droge W, Breitkreutz R, Glutathione and Immune Function. Proc Nutr Soc. 2000 Nov;59(4):595-600. “Immunological functions in diseases that are associated with a cysteine and glutathione deficiency may be significantly enhanced and potentially restored by cysteine supplementation”
  • infertility
    • a general article about how oxidative stress can be related to female infertility here
    • a general article about how oxidative stress can be related to male infertility here
  • influenza
  • insomnia
    • 14 scientific papers here
  • kidney disease
    • Those with kidney failure or on dialysis suffer from high levels of oxidative (acidic) stress and decreased glutathione levels. Raised glutathione levels help prevent anemia. Nephron 61: 404-408, 1992
    • Read Lomaestro and Malone’s (1995) paper, Glutathione in Health and Disease: Pharmacotherapeutic Issues
    • Restoring glutathione as a therapeutic strategy in chronic kidney disease here
  • liverLou Gehrig’s disease (see ALS above)
  • lung disorders and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
    • read a general article about glutathione and lung health here
    • Mitochondrial glutathione (scientific review paper) – see p. 2694 for info re: lungs
    • The Treatment of Pulmonary Diseases and Respiratory-Related Conditions with Inhaled (Nebulized or Aerosolized) Glutathione. The potential applications of inhaled GSH are numerous when one considers just how many pulmonary diseases and respiratory-related conditions are affected by deficient antioxidant status or an over production of oxidants, poor oxygenation and/or impaired host defenses.
    • Oxidative stress and regulation of glutathione in lung inflammation. This review describes the redox control and involvement of nuclear factor-kB and activator protein-1 in the regulation of cellular glutathione and c-glutamylcysteine synthetase under conditions of oxidative stress and inflammation, the role of glutathione in oxidant-mediated susceptibility/tolerance, c-glutamylcysteine synthetase genetic susceptibility and the potential therapeutic role of glutathione and its precursors in protecting against lung oxidant stress, inflammation and injury.
    • Lung glutathione and oxidative stress: implications in cigarette smoke-induced airway disease. This review outlines 1) the regulation of cellular GSH levels and g-GCS expression under oxidative stress and 2) the evidence for lung oxidant stress and the potential role of GSH in the pathogenesis of COPD.
    • The Use of Nebulized Glutathione in the Treatment of Emphysema: a Case Report . We present the case of a 95-year-old man with an acute respiratory crisis secondary to emphysema and apparent bronchial infection. Treatment with nebulized glutathione led to a rapid resolution of the crisis, as well as a marked improvement in the chronic course of the disease. We suggest this treatment can be considered an option for acute respiratory crises due to COPD.
    • Read Lomaestro and Malone’s (1995) paper, Glutathione in Health and Disease: Pharmacotherapeutic Issues
    • Doctors have used glutathione-promoting drugs to treat many lung diseases including asthma, chronic bronchitis and emphysema. New and potentially therapeutic roles can be found for cigarette smoke damage, pulmonary fibrosis and other illnesses. American Journal of Medical Science 307:119-127, 1994
    • read scientific papers about COPD and obstructive pulmonary disease and glutathione here.
  • lupus
    • 101 scientific papers here
    • Elevated levels of inflammatory markers were associated with a depletion of Glutathione in study subjects suffering from Lupus and Arthritis; scientific paper here.
  • lyme disease
    • “Lyme disease is a seriously complex multi-system acidic inflammatory condition that is triggered by bacterial exotoxins. Glutathione helps to remove exotoxic and/or mycotoxic acids by forming a soluble compound with them, which can then be excreted through the urine or gut.” Can Glutathione Help Lyme Disease Sufferers? Excerpt from: The Glutathione Report: Optimal Health with the Master Antioxidant. Issue 4, Volume 1, 2004 May.
    • Pancewicz, SA; Skrzydlewska E, et al, Role of reactive oxygen species (RPS) in patients with erythema migrans, and early manifestation of Lyme borreliosis. Med Sci Monit. 2001; 7(6): 1230-35. (A paper that essentially says that glutathione levels are low in individuals with lyme disease)
    • Dr. Klinghardt’s biological treatment of lyme disease based on 900 successful treated cases is here. (I highly respect Dr. Klinghardt. His protocol is very comprehensive, and one of the steps involves increasing glutathione levels).
  • macular degeneration
    • 78 scientific papers here
    • read these scientific papers about macular degeneration and glutathione here
  • migraines
    • 10 scientific papers here
  • mitochondrial health
    • Glutathione deficiency in patients with mitochondrial disease: implications for pathogenesis and treatment here. Restoration of cellular glutathione  could prove to be of therapeutic benefit in patients with a glutathione deficiency.
    • “Levels of glutathione were significantly reduced in white blood cells from the 20 mitochondrial disease patients in the study.” Read a news release from Stanford Medical school here and another article here.
  • multiple sclerosis (MS)MRSA (9 scientific papers here)
    • 120 scientific papers here
    • Calabrese et al. Disruption of 6 Thiol Homeostasis and Nitrostative Stress in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Active Multiple Sclerosis: Evidence for a Protective Role of Acetylcarnitine. 2003 Sep; 28(9):
      1321-8.
    • Mann et al. Glutathione S-Transferase Polymorphisms in MS: Their Relationship to Disability. Neurology. 2000 Feb 8;54(3):542-7.
    • Researchers concluded that in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis that showed an absence of measurable inflammation, oxidative stress continued to cause a functional decline in the patients. This was shown by lower levels of glutathione in the brain (Choi Multiple Sclerosis 2011)
    • read these scientific papers about MS and glutathione here
  • myocardia ischemia
  • neurodegenerative diseaseobesity (402 scientific papers here)
    • Mitochondrial glutathione (scientific review paper) – see p. 2693 for info re: neurological disorders.
    • Glutathione, oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. There is significant evidence that the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Friedreich’s ataxia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, may involve the generation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we review the evidence for a disturbance of glutathione homeostasis that may either lead to or result from oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disorders.
    • GSH and analogs in antiviral therapy. “GSH is the most powerful intracellular antioxidant and plays a role in the detoxification of a variety of electrophilic compounds and peroxides via catalysis by glutathione-S-transferases (GST) and glutathione peroxidases (GPx). An imbalance in GSH is observed in a wide range of pathologies, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, cystic fibrosis (CF), several viral infections including HIV-1, as well as in aging.”
    • read these papers about neurodegenerative disease and glutathione here
  • osteoarthritisosteoporosis (75 scientific papers here)
    • Hammarqvist F, Luo JL, cotgreave IA, Andersson K, Wernerman J. Skeletal Muscle Glutathione is Depleted In Critically Ill Patients. Crit Care Med. 25(1):78-84 1997 Jan.

  • overtrained athletes
    • read this abstract here
  • pain
    • 254 scientific papers here
  • pancreatitis
    • Glutathione protects the body from inflammation of gastritis, stomach ulcers, pancreatitis and inflammatory bowel disease including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Gut 42: 485-492, 1998
  • Parkinson’s disease
    • 798 scientific papers here;
    • read these scientific papers about Parkinson’s and glutathione here
    • New Advances in Parkinson’s Disease
    • Inducible Alterations of Glutathione Levels in Adult Dopaminergic Midbrain Neurons Result in Nigrostriatal Degeneration. Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the preferential loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). One of the earliest detectable biochemical alterations that occurs in the Parkinsonian brain is a marked reduction in SN levels of total glutathione (glutathione plus glutathione disulfide), occurring before losses in mitochondrial complex I (CI) activity, striatal dopamine levels, or midbrain dopaminergic neurodegeneration associated with the disease.
    • Glutathione, oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. There is significant evidence that the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Friedreich’s ataxia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, may involve the generation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we review the evidence for a disturbance of glutathione homeostasis that may either lead to or result from oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disorders.
    • Dopamine turnover and glutathione oxidation: Implications for Parkinson disease. Parkinson disease is characterized by a major loss (z8O% or more) of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons and by an increased turnover of neurotransmitter by surviving neurons of the nigrostriatal tract. In theory, increased turnover of dopamine should be associated with an oxidative stress derived from increased production of hydrogen peroxide.
    • Glutathione depletion in PC12 results in selective inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity: implications for Parkinson’s disease. Oxidative stress appears to play an important role in degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The SN of early PD patients have dramatically decreased levels of the thiol tripeptide glutathione (GSH). GSH plays multiple roles in the nervous system both as an antioxidant and a redox modulator.
    • Glutathione Depletion Switches Nitric Oxide Neurotrophic Effects to Cell Death in Midbrain Cultures Implications for Parkinson’s Disease . This study shows that alterations in GSH levels change the neurotrophic effects of NO in midbrain cultures into neurotoxic. Under these conditions, NO triggers a programmed cell death with markers of both apoptosis and necrosis characterized by an early step of free radicals production followed by a late requirement for signalling on the sGC/cGMP/PKG pathway.
    • Parkinson’s Disease as Multifactorial Oxidative Neurodegeneration: Implications for Integrative Management. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common movement pathology, severely afflicting dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra (SN) along with non-dopaminergic, extra-nigral projection bundles that control circuits for sensory, associative, premotor, and motor pathways.
    • Reduced intravenous glutathionein the treatment of early Parkinson’s disease. Our data indicate that in untreated PD patients glutathione has symptomatic efficacy and possibly retards the progression of the disease.
    • Glutathione helps to preserve brain tissue by preventing damage from free radicals (acids) and destructive chemicals formed by the normal processes of metabolism, toxic elements in the environment, and as a normal response of the body to challenges by acidic agents or other stresses. With the understanding that glutathione is important for brain protection and that this protection many be lacking in the brains of Parkinson’s clients due to glutathione deficiency, it can be seen as very beneficial. (Di Monte et al. Glutathione in Parkinson’s Disease: A Link Between Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Damage? An Neurol. 32 Suppl; S111- 115, 1992.)
    • Read Lomaestro and Malone’s (1995) paper, Glutathione in Health and Disease: Pharmacotherapeutic Issues
    • Glutathione and Parkinson’s disease: Is this the elephant in the room? “At least 2 decades have past since the demonstration of a 40% deficit in total glutathione (GSH) levels in the substantia nigra [a part of the brain] in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD).”
    • read a general article about the link between Parkinson’s and autism [i.e., low glutathione levels] here
    • a clinical trial is planned for intravenous N-acetyl cysteine for the treatment of Parkinsons’ disease (Dr. Keller’s Original Glutathione Formula contains N-acetyl cysteine) here. They will be quantifying how glutathione levels change in response to the treatment.
    • see Dr. David Perlmutter’s video about the success of glutathione therapy for Parkinson’s here. Read an interview with him here.
  • pre-eclampsia (hypertension during pregnancy)
  • pregnancypremenstrual syndrome (2 scientific papers here)
    • Glutathione’s role in fetal and placental development is critical. It also acts in the placenta to detoxify pollutants before they can reach the developing child. Many complications of pregnancy have been linked with poor glutathione levels. Early Human Development 37: 167-174, 1994
  • psoriasis
  • pulmonary fibrosis
    • 213 scientific papers here
    • Doctors have used glutathione-promoting drugs to treat many lung diseases including asthma, chronic bronchitis and emphysema. New and potentially therapeutic roles can be found for cigarette smoke damage, pulmonary fibrosis and other illnesses. American Journal of Medical Science 307:119-127, 1994
    • Glutathione deficiency of the lower respiratory tract in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. These data confirm the established role of oxidant/antioxidant imbalance in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and show the potential of induced sputum to directly study inflammatory processes and surrogate markers in interstitial lung diseases like idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
  • schizophrenia
    • 165 scientific papers here
    • A role for glutathione in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia? Animal models and relevance to clinical practice. When glutathione (GSH) levels are reduced there is an increased potential for cellular oxidative stress, characterised by an increase and accruement of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathology of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Read this abstract here.
  • sepsis
    • 408 scientific papers here;
    • read a scientific paper entitled, “Role of cysteine and glutathione in HIV infection and other diseases associated with muscle wasting and immunological dysfunction” here. This paper discusses how individuals with sepsis have low glutathione levels and supplementation with cysteine can be a useful treatment (Dr. Keller’s Original Glutathione Formula contains N-Acetyl Cysteine)
    • Read Lomaestro and Malone’s (1995) paper, Glutathione in Health and Disease: Pharmacotherapeutic Issues
  • sinusitis
  • sleeping disorders
    • 46 scientific papers here;
  • spontaneous abortions
    • 49 scientific papers here
  • stomach ulcers
    • Glutathione protects the body from inflammation of gastritis, stomach ulcers, pancreatitis and inflammatory bowel disease including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Gut 42: 485-492, 1998
  • stroke
    • Nutritional Regulation of Glutathione in Stroke. Neurtox Res. 1999 Dec; 1(2): 99-112.
    • Raised glutathione levels fight the oxidation of fats circulating in the bloodstream including cholesterol, retarding the process of plaque formation in the arteries leading to most heart attacks and strokes. Nutrition Reviews 54: 1-30, 1996.
    • read these scientific papers about stroke and glutathione here
  • thyroid gland healthupper respiratory problems (27 scientific papers here)
    • “Low levels of glutathione may be a factor in the genesis of thyroid disease.” Read some abstracts of scientific papers linking low glutathione levels and thyroid disease here.
  • viral infections (1075 scientific papers here)
    • Fraternale A, Paoletti MF, Casabianca A, et al, Antiviral and immunomodulatory properties of new pro-glutathione (GSH) molecules. Curr Med Chem. 2006;13(15):1749-55.
    • GSH and analogs in antiviral therapy. “GSH is the most powerful intracellular antioxidant and plays a role in the detoxification of a variety of electrophilic compounds and peroxides via catalysis by glutathione-S-transferases (GST) and glutathione peroxidases (GPx). An imbalance in GSH is observed in a wide range of pathologies, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, cystic fibrosis (CF), several viral infections including HIV-1, as well as in aging.”
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